A health insurance premium is the amount of money you pay per month to the health insurance carrier. Now, you either pay by the month of you pay it per pay period depending if you get it through your employer or not.
If you get it through your employer, your employer most likely covers a portion of your premium.
If you get your insurance through either Covered California or through the exchange in another state then you most likely get an Advance Premium Tax Credit, that's where the Federal Government pays a part of your health insurance premium for you.
If you are not on the exchange and you buy directly through the carrier then you're paying 100% of the premium yourself.
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